Lineto – the name is borrowed from the PostScript™ page description language – was founded by Cornel Windlin and Stephan Müller in 1993. Five years later, they jointly set up Lineto.com to distribute their own typefaces on the web, and invited a number of fellow designers with shared sensibilities to publish their fonts alongside. Since then, Lineto has grown into a reputable library of original typefaces. As of 2007, Jürg Lehni has officially joined forces as a third associate.
“Hoefler & Frere-Jones (H&FJ) is an influential type foundry in New York City run by type designers Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones. H&FJ develops fonts for both the retail market and for individual clients. Clients include: The New York Times, The Guardian, The Sun, The Times, and Esquire.
Beginning in the early 1990s, The Hoefler Type Foundry became a dominant voice in editorial typography, with important commissions for Rolling Stone, Sports Illustrated, Harper’s Bazaar andThe New York Times. H&FJ remains heavily involved in editorial design, with recent commissions from Martha Stewart Living, The Wall Street Journal, Esquire, Wired and Condé Nast Portfolio as well as corporate typefaces created for Tiffany & Co., Nike, Inc., and Hewlett Packard. H&FJ works with a number of prominent institutions in New York City, including The United Nations, TheGuggenheim Museum, The Whitney Museum, Lever House, Radio City Music Hall, and The New York Jets. H&FJ’s Gotham typeface, because of its connection to New York City history, was selected in 2004 for the cornerstone of Freedom Tower, to be built on the site of the former World Trade Center.
H&FJ’s work has been profiled in The New York Times, Time, Esquire, Wallpaper, and Wired, as well as the design publications Baseline, Cap & Design, CreativePro, Communication Arts,Desktop, Eye, Design, Graphis Inc., I.D., Idea, IdN, Metropolis, Page, Print, Publish,and +81. H&FJ’s work is part of the permanent collections of both the Smithsonian Institution and theVictoria & Albert Museum, and has been recognized by the American Institute of Graphic Arts.
“Hoefler’s work has been exhibited internationally, and is included in the permanent collection of the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum (Smithsonian Institution) in New York. In 2002, The Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI) presented Hoefler with its most prestigious award, the Prix Charles Peignot for outstanding contributions to type design. Hoefler and Frere-Jones’ collaboration has earned them profiles in The New York Times, Time, and Esquire.”
Hoefler & Frere-Jones creates type fonts for companies within New York such as for retail like Tiffany & co, then publications, corporations, and institutions. Their business is in New York and located 611 Broadway, New York, NY 10012-2608.”
“Marian Bantjes was born in 1963 and is a Canadian designer, artist, illustrator, typographer and writer.
Bantjes started working in the field of visual communication in 1983 and worked as a book typesetter from 1984–1994. She became well known as a talented graphic designer from 1994–2003, when she was a partner and senior designer at Digitopolis in Vancouver, BC, Canada, where she created identity and communication designs for a wide range of corporate, education and arts organizations.
In 2003 Marian left her firm and “strategic design” behind to embark on the work that she has since become internationally known for. Describing herself as a Graphic Artist, working primarily with custom type and ornament, Bantjes’ highly personal, obsessive and sometimes strange graphic work has brought her international recognition and fame as a world-class visual designer. Bantjes is known for her detailed and lovingly precise vector art, obsessive hand work, patterning and highly ornamental style.
Stefan Sagmeister calls Bantjes “one of the most innovative typographers working today,” andNoreen Morioka calls Bantjes “the Doyald Young of her generation.” In 2005 Bantjes was named one of 25 up-and-coming Designers to Watch (STEP Magazine, January 2005).
Bantjes’ clients include Pentagram, Stefan Sagmeister, Saks Fifth Avenue, Bruce Mau Design, Young & Rubicam Chicago, Anni Kuan, Houghton Mifflin, Print Magazine, Wallpaper* , WIRED,The Guardian (UK), The New York Times, among others. She has also worked on design materials for AIGA, TypeCon 2007, and the Society of Graphic Designers of Canada (GDC).
Her work has been featured in STEP, étapes (Paris), Azure, Matrix (Quebec) Tupigrafia (Brazil) andPrint, Fontshop’s Font 004, and Eye magazine (#58). She has written the design book “I wonder”, which was dubbed one of the 13 best design books of 2010 by Fastcode design. Bantjes has been honored with numerous awards and her work is now part of the permanent collection at theCooper-Hewitt National Design Museum.
Bantjes is an accomplished writer on the subjects of typography and design, and is a regular contributor to the popular design website Speak Up. Bantjes is frequently invited to sit on design award juries and speak at design conferences and design schools around the world. Bantjes says “throwing your individuality into a project is heresy” but she has built a career doing just that, as her signature style is unmistakable.
From 2002–2006 Bantjes served as the Communications VP of the Society of Graphic Designers in British Columbia. She was also the Chair and Creative Director of the 2006 Graphex Canadian design awards. In 2008 Bantjes was invited back to serve as a judge for ‘Graphex 2008 Canadian National Design Awards’. Bantjes lives and works internationally from her base on Bowen Island off the west coast of Canada, near Vancouver, BC.”
Thought this was interesting
Can’t figure out how to imbed the link, but the video basically goes through the history of comic sans, from its origin and creation, to the current state of comic sans infamy as being one of the worst fonts.
Designed in 1994 by Vincent Connare. Melinda Gates asked Connare to design a font for a cartoon in a Microsoft program. Connare created Comic Sans based upon old handwritten comic fonts. Although never used in the intended program, Comic Sans was put into various other Microsoft programs as a standard font. It soon became highly accessible.
Comic Sans has been implemented quite often, sometimes in seemingly inappropriate situations. However, in the video Comics Sans is defended because it may be our own fault that Comic Sans has gained such infamy, not its own fault.
In the video, Comic Sans is said to possibly exist in the typographic “uncanny valley,” the point where robots become too close to humans as to become unsettling or creepy. In this case, Comic Sans is neither a well crafted, inorganic and precise font, but not quite a natural looking organic font.
Additionally it is mentioned that Comics Sans is potentially useful in situations.
Why do letters look the way they do?
According to studies, letters and symbols were defined by the ability to be read, not the ability to be written. The shapes used in writing systems, from the Greek alphabet to Chinese symbols, may have come to be based upon how human vision has evolved to see common structures and shapes in nature. Mark Changizi, a theoretical neurobiologist at the California Institute of Technology, says that letters and symbols have their particular shapes because “these are what we are good at seeing”.
This area of study has risen from observing how robots interpret and “see” letters and shapes.
After studying different shapes, it seen that there were common contours consistent between letters.
These studies are also linked to the idea of the brain having a separate area for interpreting and viewing letters and words.
Interesting subjects to think about.
Another interesting question regarding letterforms is the matter of why lowercase letters occasionally look different from their capital counterparts.
Based on the Latin alphabet, and in turn the Greek alphabet, both of which contained capital and lowercase letters, our alphabet follows suit.
“But the Greek alphabet only had 24 letters, and the Latin alphabet had just 21. Obviously, we’ve toyed with them since then. The letter R, for instance, is related to the Greek letter, Rho, which looks like our letter P. (P is not related to this letter, but to the letter Pi, which you may remember from high school geometry). Anyway, back to the slippery letter R. In the Latin alphabet, the R acquired its modern uppercase shape: R. The lowercase r, though, was still figuring itself out.
Those medieval scribes tried to write as quickly and efficiently as possible. They developed a lowercase version of the letter r that looked a lot like its uppercase equivalent, pictured here. It was called the r rotunda. When writing, the scribes would place that letter next to letters like o, b and p that already had the left staff of the capital letter R, so the lowercase r, then, would look just like its uppercase letter.
Obviously, though, we don’t still use a lowercase r that looks like that. At this same time, another lowercase r was competing with the r rotunda. Greek letters were often written in what we’d call cursive, with the end of one letter going into the beginning of the next. From 100 to 300 A.D., Latin scribes began writing Latin in a Greek style. It was called New Roman Cursive. The New Roman Cursive version of the r is very similar to the lowercase r with which we are familiar. This r looks like part of the lower staff of the capital R and can be easily distinguished from other letters and – most importantly – written quickly.”
Garamond is a group of old-style serif typefaces named after the punch cutter Claude Garamond, a leading type designer of his time.
Garamond is seen as being among the most legible serif typefaces for use in print. Additionally, it is noted as being one of the most eco-friendly major fonts in terms of ink usage.
In 1621, sixty years after Garamond’s death, the French printer Jean Jannon issued a specimen of typefaces that had some characteristics similar to the Garamond designs, though his letters were more asymmetrical and irregular in slope and axis. After the French government raided Jannon’s printing office, Cardinal Richelieu named Jannon’s type Caractère de l’Université, and it became the house style of Royal Printing Office.
In 1825, the French National Printing Office adapted the type used by Royal Printing Office in the past, and claimed the type as the work of Claude Garamond. Beatrice Warde, writing for British typography journal The Fleuron, revealed that many of the revivals said to be based on Claude Garamond’s designs were actually designed by Jean Jannon; but the Garamond name had stuck.
Various examples of Garamond
Digital versions include Adobe Garamond and Garamond Premier (both designed by Robert Slimbach), Monotype Garamond, Simoncini Garamond, and Stempel Garamond. The typefaces Granjon and Sabon (designed by Jan Tschichold) are also classified as Garamond revivals.
A version called ITC Garamond, designed by Tony Stan (1917–1988) was released in 1977. The design of ITC Garamond, more than any other digital versions, takes great liberty with Garamond’s original design by following a formulary associated with the International Typeface Corporation (ITC), including an increase in the x-height; a wide range of weights, from light to ultra bold; and a condensed width, also in weights from light to ultra bold.”
- Chetan Bhagat writes all his novels in Garamond on Microsoft Word.
- The large picture books of Dr. Seuss are set in a version of Garamond.
- In 1988 British Newspaper The Guardian redesigned its masthead to incorporate “The” in Garamond and “Guardian” in bold Helvetica. This led to a repopularising of the font Garamond in the UK
- Nvidia uses it in their scientific PDF documents.
- All of the American editions of J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter books are set in twelve-point Adobe Garamond, except Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, which is set in 11.5-point Adobe Garamond because it is longer.
- The popular Hunger Games trilogy is set in Adobe Garamond Pro, as is the Shiver trilogy by Maggie Stiefvater.
- The Everyman’s Library publication of ‘The Divine Comedy is set in twelve-point Garamond.
- A rare infant version—with single-story versions of the letters a and g—is available in the UK from DTP Types.
- A variation on the Garamond typeface was adopted by Apple in 1984 upon the release of the Macintosh. For branding and marketing the new Macintosh family of products, Apple’s designers used the ITC Garamond Light and Book weights and digitally condensed them twenty percent. The result was not as compressed as ITC Garamond Light Condensed or ITC Garamond Book Condensed. Not being a multiple master font, stroke contrast in some characters was too light, and some of the interior counters appeared awkward. To address these problems, Apple commissioned ITC and Bitstream to develop a variant for their proprietary use that was similar in width and feeling, but addressed the digitally condensed version’s shortcomings. Designers at Bitstream produced a unique digital variant, condensed approximately twenty percent, and worked with Apple to make the face more distinct. Following this, Chuck Rowe hinted the TrueTypes. The fonts delivered to Apple were known as Apple Garamond.
- One of the initial goals of the literary journal Timothy McSweeney’s Quarterly Concern was to use only a single font: Garamond 3. The editor of the journal, Dave Eggers, has stated that it is his favorite font, “because it looked good in so many permutations—italics, small caps, all caps, tracked out, justified or not.”
- Many O’Reilly Media books are set in ITC Garamond Light.
- The logo of clothing company Abercrombie & Fitch uses a variation of the Garamond typeface.
- Garamond text is used on 1985 Nintendo video game consoles in italic form (after the text “Nintendo Entertainment System” or NES) to describe the various version of the consoles.”
For project 4, we were faced with the task of creating a new letter form system based upon a noun and adjective we were assigned. The words I was given were the noun “disappearance” and the adjective “enigmatic.” Interesting enough words, but how was I going to turn them into representational fonts? Well, in order to complete this task, we were expected to find out some background information on our words, to do a little research. We would be looking at the meanings of the words, as well as their inferences and connotations.
To begin, I took to an ever trustworthy source, the dictionary. According to the knowledgeable book, disappearance was to disappear, the act of disappearing, or having disappeared. A disappearance. “Police are investigating the disappearance of a young woman.” To disappear is “to become impossible to see,” “to stop existing,” or “to be lost or impossible to find.” Once I had determined the meaning, I started listing out different ideas of associations. Kidnappings. Missing person posters. Amelia Earheart. The Bermuda Triangle. To fade away. Fading. Just a list of thoughts and related thoughts that involved “disappearance.”
Eventually I decided to go with the idea of “fading.” After going through a few ideas and various tweaks, I finally came to my end result. A blocky geometric letter system that seemed to have the effect of opening or closing blinds, with an increase in white space as you go down the letter. I did this in the attempt to suggest the idea of “fading.”
Overall, I believe I dealt with my first word pretty well. Although there are a few awkward points in the letter system (inconsistent widths and somewhat confusing letters), I think I dealt with the idea of “fading” quite well.
What then would I do with enigmatic? According to the dictionary, to be enigmatic is to be “mysterious and difficult to understand.” I then created a list of things that seemed be enigmatic in nature. Stonehenge. Easter island heads. The Illuminati. Witchcraft. Psychics. Then I thought of different words to describe enigmatic. Shadowy. Dark. Complex. Secretive. Cryptic. Mask. Hood.
Enigmatic was more difficult to deal with. The answer to the question was much less concrete than that of disappearance. Eventually I decided to create a mysterious looking font that I thought would resemble ancient runes and text of centuries past. Though I think it’s the less successful of the two representational typefaces, I think it’s understandable to link my font with the world “enigmatic.”
All in all, this project took an interesting approach towards teaching type design, and I feel as though I’ve gained a bit more of an understanding of the process of creating the letters and alphabets for words that we read and use every day.
When creating his fictional letterform, Tyler emulated the style of the typeface almost perfectly. All shapes, forms, and proportions make logical sense in his new letterform. I, however, disagree with his choice in using the bottom of the g in the construction of the new letter. For me, I don’t think it naturally flows from the letter. The top is too rigid and straight compared to the flowing loop of the bottom. Overall, however, I think Tyler completed the assignment very well, creating a unique but consistent letterform.
Throughout the process, I noticed various components of the letterforms that defined the Adobe Garamond typeface. First of all, I studied the shape of the bowls of b, d, p, and q. The bowls are ovular in shape, with one side flattening out. This creates a small area with a sharper bend as opposed to the smooth curves of an oval. It appears someone similar to the shape of a capital D, with only one sharp corner. Next I noticed that the serifs of the Adobe Garamond Typeface are never perfectly flat. Each have a small dip in them. Furthermore, different serifs occupy different places. A horizontal bar shaped serif is located at the tops and bottoms of some slants, notable in the letters v, x, and y, to name a few. A slanted smaller serif is located at the top of stems, as seen in d, b, and r.
When it came to creating my new letterform, I had drawn up a few sketches of potential candidates. In the end, I decided upon a letter based off of some of the images shown below. In this letter, I implemented the ascender of the letter f, the proportions and shape of the letter, and a serif at the opposite end of the letter.
I played around with a few different ideas, some including cross strokes, some not. I implemented various serifs, from that of the v, that of the n or h, and that of the z.
In the end, I decided to use the ascender of the f, the proportions of the v, and the serif of the z. I decided to do this because I believed using the v serif would cause the letter to look too much like a v with an f attached to it. The serif of the n was also not a good match, considering both the angle and size of the arm it would be attached to. In the end, the z serif was the best match.
In terms of the strong suits of my letterform, I believe that I accurately displayed the style of Adobe Garamond in terms of proportion. All aspects are accurate to the source material, and the letter size makes logical sense. My letter, however, does not completely match the style based off of the choices I made for each part. The overall slant of the letter is quite irregular when compared to other letters within the typeface. Additionally, my choice in using the z serif, while making the letter seem more individual and unique, was inaccurate for the type of serif that would be used under these conditions. Overall, however, I believe my letterform gets the job done.