Recently Wayne State University was attacked, a small skirmish in a diffuse, ongoing cyberwar, albeit without a single, defined enemy. This is an account of what happened, why it happened, and how the university responded. I have tried to make the explanation of each event relatively non-technical, but a certain amount of geekery seems unavoidable.
On May 11, at 9:48 in the morning 182 University computers received an email message from a computer belonging to a local contractor who was doing work on the WSU campus. The message had the subject line ‘invoice’, and the text of the message said merely ‘Check invoice’. There was a zip file attached. A zip file is a data file that has been ‘compressed’ so it can travel more easily over the tight ‘passages’ of the email system. It’s a perfectly respectable way of making large files (such as pictures, pdf files and such) fit within email size limits.
However, when the recipients clicked on the file labeled ‘invoice123.zip’ it extracted into a file named ‘e9058.pdf’, which showed up on the screen as a file with an attached (blurry) image of the Adobe Acrobat logo, making it look like a real pdf. When the respondents with Windows computers (but notably not Macs or Linux machines) then ‘opened’ the pdf file, the following things happened:
- that person’s computer connected to some external websites
- from which it then downloaded additional malware, which proceded to search their computer for personal banking logins
- it then connected to remote ‘command and control’ servers. passing control of the computer overseas.
- finally it looked in the local Outlook address book and used it to send the infecting email message to addresses it found there.
It took about an hour for the first three computers to get infected, but the attack was discovered by the C&IT Security office after the second computer began spreading the virus. Between the time that the second computer was detected and when it was shut off the network, seven minutes elapsed, and during those seven minutes that computer sent out 4462 virus emails.
By the time the third computer was infected, C&IT’s security office was able to take action to stop the further spread of the virus. A set of filters on the WSU email system blocked transmission of the zip file, but by noon 150 computers had been infected, and 111 of them were sending out email with the attached zip file.
You might wonder why our Symantec antivirus software didn’t detect the infection when the attachment was opened. The answer is that Symantec (and all other antivirus systems) rely on known virus ‘signatures’ (identifying features), and this was what is known as a ‘zero-day’ attack—a brand new virus never before seen ‘in the wild’. It takes the antivirus people a day or so to develop the specific tools needed for each new virus and distribute them to their users.
In addition, because the virus relied on Outlook address books, people got email from people they knew, who did occasionally send them invoices.
The spread of the virus was effectively stopped by 11:50. Our security team isolated it and determined that it was connecting our computers to Serbia and Ukraine. The Security team then set the university firewall to block connections there, and identified all of the infected computers.
In order to clean up the infection those machines maintained by C&IT (i.e. managed by the DeskTech unit) were reformatted, and outside of the DeskTech domain local administrators were given guidance on how to clean the machines under their control.
In addition, within the DeskTech domain a program called AppLocker was turned on. This prevents computers from running software that did not have an appropriate signature, or which were installed in nonstandard places in a computer (i.e. not in Program Files). Unfortunately this broke a number of specialized programs that various people around campus relied upon, and special rules had to be written to fix this.
By the evening only a few infected computers were not yet fixed,and the original attacker used that to their advantage. Overnight new instructions were passed down to these few straggling machines, and the next day a new attack was launched, sending attachments with different names, but the same modus operandi. These were blocked within 20 minutes of the first occurrence, but to ensure no further attacks, there was a temporary block placed on all zip files sent through the email system. Since there are many legitimate uses of zip files, this block will be ended shortly.
Meanwhile, everyone who was affected was required to change their WSU passwords. Careful examination of system logs showed that four of those AccessID’s were tried from Russia (while their owners were at work on campus) but none of the logins succeeded, so apparently no passwords were compromised.
What can we learn from this adventure?
The faster the IT security guys can act the less harmful the infection. Forwarding suspicious emails to the Security Office (or dragging them to the Phishing applet in Wayne Connect) is valuable. A delay of even an additional hour could have been catastrophic for the campus.
Smooth coordination between the security office and desktop support enabled the spread of the infection to be halted quickly.
We continually remind folks not to click on attachments they don’t expect from people they don’t know. Now we need to modify this—don’t click on any attachment, regardless of sender, unless you are sure it is safe. The text of the email message should reference the content of the attachment and you should be expecting that content. If it doesn’t either phone the sender or just delete it.
Finally, if you’d like to learn more about how to resist phishing attempts, you can take the anti-phishing training we make available through Accelerate, HR’s online training system. To get there, log in to Academica, then search for ‘Accelerate’ in the search box (unless you’ve already been there, in which case it should show up in your personalized links). Start Accelerate, then Browse the Catalog, C&IT Security Awareness Program, and finally PhishProof (Part 3), Launch.