Lupton. Thinking with Type: Pg. 22-47.
Bodoni & Didot used calligraphic practices that collided w/ typographic tradition.
They created an abstract and dehumanized approach to the design of letters.
In 1834 B & D combined pantographic and router
– revolutionized wood-type manufacture.
pantograph – tracing device that allows a parent drawing to spawn variants with different proportions and weights.
– treated the alphabet as a flexible system divorced from calligraphy.
Relationship among letters became more important than the individual letters.
Reform & Revolution
1906 – Edward Johnston revive the search for a standard alphabet. Claimed exaggeration is dangerous.
1927 – Futura by Paul Renner
Type as Program
1967 – Dutch Designer Wim Crouwel
– published “new alphabet” made from straight lines.
Rule-based & systematic.
1985 – Zuzana Licko began designing typefaces that exploited the rough grain of early desktop systems.
– Licko and her husband were cofounders of Emigre Fonts and Emigre magazine
Early 1990s – Type designers were less constrained by low-resolution outputs.
Type as Narrative
1990 – Barry Deck designed template Gothic – based on letters drawn with a plastic stencil.
Barry was a student of Ed Fella
1990 – P. Scott Makela designed Dead History. A pastiche of two typefaces: traditional serif font Centennial & pop classic VAG Rounded.
1990 – Dutch typographers, Erik van Blokland & Just van Rossum combined roles of designer and programmer.
typeface – Beowulf
Back to Work
1996 – Licko designed one of the most popular typefaces of its time.
Point system – standard used today.
One point = 1/72 inch of .35 millimeters.
Twelve pts = one pica.
Horizontal measure of a letter is called a set width.
Width of a letter depends on the height. They are directly related.
Size of design elements in comparison to other elements i na layout as well as the physical context of the work.