A typestyle, which is characterized by moderate variations in stroke weight, smoothly joined serifs, high contrast, and an almost vertical stress. First introduced in the late 18th century by John Baskerville.
A style of typeface developed in the late 18th century that continued through much of the 19th century. Characterized by high contrast between thick and thin strokes and flat serifs. Modern fonts are harder to read than previous and later typestyles.
The Humanist types (sometimes referred to as Venetian) appeared during the 1460s and 1470s, and were modelled not on the dark gothic scripts like textura, but on the lighter, more open forms of the Italian humanist writers. The humanist types were at the same time as the first roman types. Its characteristics are sloping cross-bar on the lowercase “e”. It has a relatively small x-height and has low contrast between the stroke width.
A typeface is an artistic interpretation, or design, of a collection of alphanumeric symbols. May include letters, numerals, punctuation, various symbols, & more. Usually grouped together in a family containing individual fonts for italic, bold & other variations of the primary design.
12 points equal 1 pica
6 picas equal 72 points equal 1 inch
8 Picas = 8p
8 points = p8, 8pts
8 Picas, 4 Points = 8p4
The aperture is the partially enclosed, somewhat rounded space in some characters such as ‘n’, ‘C’, ‘S’, the lower part of ‘e’, or the upper part of a double-story ‘a’.
Any part in a lowercase letter that extends above the x-height, found for example in b, d, f, h, k, etc.
An imaginary line drawn from top to bottom of a glyph bisecting the upper and lower strokes is the axis.
The imaginary line upon which the letters in a font appear to rest.
The curved part of the character that encloses the circular or curved parts of some letters such as ‘d’, ‘b’, ‘o’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ is the bowl.
The bracket is a curved or wedge-like connection between the stem and serif of some fonts.
The height from the baseline to the top of the uppercase letters.
The enclosed or partially enclosed circular or curved negative space of some letters such as d, o, and s is the counter.
The (usually) horizontal stroke across the middle of the uppercase ‘A’ and ‘H’ is a crossbar.
Any part in a lowercase letter that extends below the baseline, found for example in g, j, p, q, y, etc.
Typically found on the lowercase ‘g’, an ear is a decorative flourish usually on the upper right side of the bowl.
Much like a counter, the eye refers specifically to the enclosed space in a lower ‘e’.
A collection of letters, numbers, punctuation, and other symbols used to set text matter.
An incarnation of a character. Every character in a typeface is represented by a glyph. One single type design may contain more than one glyph for each character. These are usually referred to as alternates.
The vertical space between lines of text.
Special characters that are actually two letters combined into one.
A catagory of typefaces that do not use serifs. Populas sans serif fonts include Helvetica, Avant Garde, Ariel, and Geneva.
A type of serif font that evolved from the Modern style. The serifs are square and larger, bolder than serifs of previous typestyles.
The end of any stroke that doesn’t include a serif.
The height of the lowercase letters, disregarding ascenders or descenders, typically exemplified by the letter x.
Choosing and Combining Type
1. Consider the medium for which the typeface was originally designed.
2. When using digital adaptations of letterpress faces, choose fonts that are faithful to the spirit as well as the letter of the old designs.
3. Check the weight and conformation of the letterforms at every proofing stage.
4. Choose faces that will survive, and if possible prosper, under the final printing conditions.
5. Choose faces that suit the paper you intend to print on, or paper that suits the faces you wish to use.
1. Choose faces that suit the task as well as the subject.
2. Choose faces that can furnish whatever special effects you require.
3. Use what there is to the best advantage.
and its italic
and its oblique
and its italic
Times New Roman
and its italic
1. Choose a face whose historical echoes and associations are in harmony with the text.
2. Allow the face to speak in its natural idiom.
Cultural and Personal Considerations
1. Choose faces whose individual spirit and character is in keeping with the text.
The Multicultural Page
1. Start with a single typographic family.
2. Respect the integrity of roman, italic & small caps.
3. Consider bold faces on their own merits.
4. Choose titling and display faces that reinforce the structure of the text face.
5. Pair serifed and unserifed faces on the basis of their inner structure.
1. Choose non-Latin faces as carefully as Latin ones.
2. Avoid using faces that attempt to regiment other alphabets into Latin forms.
1. Add no unnecessary characters.
2. Add only characters that are visually distinct.
3. Avoid capricious redefinition of familiar characters.
4. Don’t mix faces haphazardly when specialized sorts are required.
Building a Type Library
1. Choose your library of faces slowly and well.
At the beginning of Project 4, each student was given two words. My words were Energetic and Destruction.
For the first part of the project, we were instructed to define our words, brainstorm the connotations and find images as examples.
Energetic: Showing or involving great activity or vitality.
Destruction: the action or process of causing so much damage to something that it no longer exists or cannot be repaired.
During the second part of the project we were introduced to the idea of modular fonts. We got to choose between circles and squares. I decided to do my project using squares. Then we made thumbnail sketches with the intent to use the modular forms to portray our words.
My thumbnail sketches will be scanned after I get my Process Work back.
When working on this project I found it helpful to look up some modular type on the Internet. Here are some of my favorite images I found:
My final project looked like this:
In project 3 we dissected a different font family than we did in Project 2. I chose to use Didot.
We copied three letters and one character:
After getting the hang of the different attributes of the font Didot, we made some thumbnail sketches and combined some of the different characteristics to make new ones.
The goal in Project 3 was to design a new character in the font Didot. We were supposed to make it look like a new font so that it fit seamlessly. It needed to contain some of the same characteristics as the other letters.
by: Denise Gonzales Crisp – 2007
Typographers design using at least two things together:
– A typographic element
– A space within and surrounding it.
Armatures – underly and bind elements through deliberate but fairly random placement ruled by “intuitively” divided space.
Grids – also underly and bind elements but with structural in addition to visual rules governing placement.
DaDa and De Stijl – early 20th century – advanced abstraction as a means of modern communication.
Principles of abstraction proved elemental to grid systems devised later.
Grid Systems – put similar principles to work except within a calculated program.
Typographer devises a system – assigns active or supporting duty to each pica, pixel, inch or cm. – an organizational map.
– Josef Muller-Brockmann
“The Grid System” – an aid in the Design of Advertisements, Catalogues and Exhibitions.
“Grid Systems in Graphic Design” – 1981
– Emil Ruder
“Typographie” – 1967
– Karl Gerstner
“Designing Programmes” – 1968
“Compendium for Literates” – 1974
Modules build structure and so “integrate elements of color, form and material” by way of visually and mechanically fastening together.
To me these photos represent pattern language.
Recipes are organized in a way that everyone should understand them. The name of the recipe will be at the top because it holds the most importance. Underneath that will be the next important things the reader will want to know (ex: serving size and how long it takes to make). Then underneath, the ingredients list will be separated from the directions.