Adobe System’s page description language. Programs like Macromedia FreeHand and Adobe Illustrator use PostScript to create complex pages, text, and graphics onscreen. This language is then sent to the printer to produce high quality printed text and graphics.
The OpenType™ format is a superset of the earlier TrueType and Adobe® PostScript® Type 1 font formats. As jointly defined by Microsoft and Adobe Systems, it is technically an extension of Microsoft’s TrueType Open format, which can contain either PostScript font outlines or TrueType font outlines in a single font file that can be used on both Macintosh and Windows platforms. It can also include an expanded character set based on the Unicode encoding standard plus advanced typographic intelligence for glyph positioning and glyph substitution that allow for the inclusion of numerous alternate glyphs in one font file.
The letters, numbers, and symbols that make up a design of type. A typeface is often part of a type family of coordinated designs. The individual typefaces are named after the family and are also specified with a designation, such as italic, bold or condensed.
The word glyph is used differently in different contexts. In the context of modern computer operating systems, it is often defined as a shape in a font that is used to represent a character code on screen or paper. The most common example of a glyph is a letter, but the symbols and shapes in a font like ITC Zapf Dingbats are also glyphs.
One weight, width, and style of a typeface. Before scalable type, there was little distinction between the terms font, face, and family. Font and face still tend to be used interchangeably, although the term face is usually more correct.
the associations a particular font brings to the readers interaction with it; what it reminds the reader of, the feelings or thoughts that arise when looking at it.
An analytical descripton of a specific font, its serifs, bracketing, terminals, weight of strokes, etc.
A style of typeface developed in the late 18th century that continued through much of the 19th century. Characterized by high contrast between thick and thin strokes and flat serifs, Modern fonts are harder to read than previous and later typestyles. Some later variations of Modern include the Slab Serifs with bolder, square serifs (often considered a separate style altogether) and the related Clarendon style with less contrast and softer, rounded shapes. Also Known As: Didone | New Antiqua.
Lineale typefaces based on the proportions of inscriptional Roman capitals and Humanist or Geralde lower-case, rather than on early grotesques. They have some stroke contrast, with two-story (double-story) a and g.These are the most calligraphic of the sans-serif typefaces, with some variation in line width and more legibility than other sans-serif fonts
The typefaces of this period are called Transitional, as they represent the initial departure from centuries of Old Style tradition and immediately predate the Modern period.
- A greater contrast between thick and thin stokes.
- Wider, gracefully bracketed serifs withflat bases.
- larger x-height
- Vertical stress in rounded strokes
- the height of capitals matches that of ascenders.
- Numerals are cap-height and consistent in size.
A type face that does not have serifs. Generally a low-contrast design. Sans serif faces lend a clean, simple appearance to documents.serif
A type of serif typeface characterized by thick, block-like serifs. Serif terminals may be either blunt and angular, or rounded. Slab serif typefaces generally have no bracket (feature connecting the strokes to the serifs). Some consider slab serifs to be a subset of modern serif typefaces including Clarendon, Typewriter, and Slab Serif (a separate sub-category of Slab Serif) styles
Type face are an essential resources employed by graphic designer as materials employed by architects.
Words originated as gestures of the body. The typeface were directly modeled on the forms of calligraphy.
Humanism and The Body
Many typefaces we used today are named for printers who worked in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. These typefaces are genera;;y known as humanist. Italic letters was used at that time.
Enlightenment and Abstraction
Renaissance artists sought standards of proportion in the idealized human body.
Geofroy Troy published a series of diagram that linked the anatomy of letters to the anatomy of man .
Construction roman letters against a finely meshed grid.
Engraved letters whose fluid lines are unconstrained by the letterpress’s mechanical grid, offered an apt medium for formal lettering.
18th century typography was influenced by new styles of handwriting and their engraved reproductions.
19th century typeface have a wholly vertical axis, a sharp contrast between thick and thin, crisp , wafer like serifs.
an abstract and dehumanized approach to the design of letters.
Type designer created big, bold faces by embellishing and engaging the body parts of classical letters. Fonts of astonishing heights, width and depth appeared – expanded, contracted , shadowed ,inlined, fattened, faceted and floriated. Serifs abandoned their role as finishing details to become independent architectural structure, and the vertical stress of traditional letters canted in new directions.
Reform and Revolution
construction of letters from basic geometric forms- the circle, square, and triangle- which they viewed as elements of a universal language of vision. It approached alphabet as a system of abstract relationships.
Type as program
constructed from straight lines. letters designed for optimal dips;ay on a video screen, where curves and angles are rendered with horizontal scan line.
Type as Narrative
letter became scratched, bent, bruised, and polluted. Template Gothic, Dead history, Beowulf was the first in series of typefaces with randomized outlines and programmed behaviors.
Back to work
Mrs. Eaves: working woman seeks reliable mate. Quadraat: all purpose hardcore Baroque. Gotham: blue- collar curves.
Rhythm and Proportion
2.1 Horizontal Motion
- Define the word space to suit the size and natural letter fit on the font.
- Choose a comfortable measures (between 43-75)
- Set ragged if setting suites the text and the page.
- Use a single word between sentences.
- Add title or no space within strings of initials.
- Letter space all string of capitals and small caps, and all long strings of digits.
- Don’t letterspace the lower case without a reason.
- Kern consistently and modestly or not at all.
- Don’t alter the width or shapes of letters without cause.
- Don’t stretch the space until it breaks.
2.2 Vertical Motion
- Choose a basic leading that suites the typeface, text, and measures.
- Add and delete vertical space in measured intervals.
- Don’t suffocate the page.
2.3 Blocks and paragraphs
- Set opening paragraphs flush left.
- In continuous text, mark all paragraphs after the first with an indent of at least one en.
- Add extra lead before and after block quotations.
- Indent or center verse quotations.
2.4 Etiquette of Hyphenation and Pagination
- At hyphenation line-ends, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward.
- Avoid leaving the stub-end of a hyphenated word, or any word shorter than four letters, as the last line of a paragraph.
- Avoid more than three consecutive hyphenated lines.
- hyphenate proper names only as a last resort unless they occur with the frequency of common nouns.
- Hyphenate according to the convention of the language.
- link short numerical expressions with hard spaces.
- Avoid beginning more than two consecutive lines with the same word.
- Never begin a page with the last line of a multi-line paragraph.
- Balance facing pages by moving single lines.
- Avoid hyphenated breaks where the text is interrupted.
- Abandon any and all rules of hyphenation and pagination that fail to serve the needs of the text.
The Elements of Typographic Style
The Grand Design
first principle :
- typography exists to honor content.
- letters have a life and dignity of their own.
- There is a style beyond style.
-Read text before designing it.
-Discover the outer logic of the typography in the inner logic of the text.
- make the visible relationship between the text and other elements (photographs, captions, tables, diagrams, notes) a reflection of their real relationship.
-Choose a typeface or a group of faces that will honor and elucidate the character of the text.
- Shape the page and frame the text block so that it honors and reveals every relationship between elements, every relationship between elements, and every logical nuance of the text.
- Give full typographic attention even to identical details.
There are always exceptions, always excuses for stunts and surprises. But perhaps we can agree that, as a rule, typography should perform these services for the reader:
- invite the reader into the text;
- reveal the tenor and meaning of the text;
- clarify the structure and order of the text;
- link the text with with other existing elements;
- induce a state of energetic repose, which is the ideal condition for reading.