Em & En:
- Hyphen: Hell-o or 647-073…
- En-Dash: 95-105 (to or til)
- Em-Dash: John-a very nice guy-was at the bar. (separating thoughts)
- En: shorter
- Em: longer
- Italics are not slanted letters. The wide, ungainly forms of these mechanically skewed letter look forced and unnatural.
- Scale contrast! The strong contrast between type size gives certain design dynamism, decisiveness, and depth while some minimal difference type size make a design tentative and arbitrary.
- Some typefaces that work well at large sizes look too fragile when reduced.
- Horizontal & vertical scaling. The proportions of the letter have been digitally distorted in order to create wider or narrower letters.
- Typefaces in the same family, but they are too close in weight to mix well.
- Tightly tracked text. Letter are tracked too close to comfort.
- Tracking lowercase letters. Loosely spaced lowercase letters-especially italics-look awkward because these characters are designed to sit closely together on a line.
- Poorly shaped text block.. In most uses, centered text should be broken into phrases with a variety of long and short lines.
- Full of holes. A column that is too narrow is full of gaps.
- Stacked lowercase.
- Too many signals. Emphasis can be created with just one shirt.
- Stack of lowercase and capital letters, the spaces between lines appear uneven because caps are tall but have no descenders. (CAPITAL investment CAPITAL punishment CAPITAL crime) Must adjust leading.
- Typefaces stacked above one another but a slightly squeezed variant of the primary font has been used to make the line fit better.
- Quotation marks carve out chunks of white space from the edge of the text.
- Million of dollars a year are spent producing commercial signs that are fraught with typographic misdoing, While some of these signs are cheaply made over-the-counter products, others were designed for prominent businesses and institutions.