Reform & Revolution
- Some designers thought distortion of the alphabet was gross and warned against it
- Avant-garde designers rejected the quest for essential letters grounded in the human hand and body
- At the Bauhaus, letters were constructed from basic geometric forms – squares, circles, triangles
Type as Program
- Wim Crouwel created designs for a new alphabet purely from straight lines… these letters were designed for optimal display on a video screen.
- In the mid-1980s computers and low-res printers made typography more accessible to the public
- PostScript and high-res printers in the 1990s created less contraints for type designers.
Type as Narrative
- Designers became unsatisfied with clean, unsullied surfaces and wanted to make letters more harsh and disorderly
- Template Gothic is designed based on letters drawn with a plastic stencil
- Dead History combines Centennial and VAG Rounded – manipulated the vectors of readymade fonts (strategy often used in contemporary art and music)]
- Beowulf was the first typeface to have random outlines and programmed behaviors